An expert on modern China is aware of three basic conflicting ideological traditions, namely, the long Confucian political tradition, the legacy of the revolution of 1911, and the Marxist movement from 1921 on. The interaction of these three traditions makes understanding Chinese intellectual and revolutionary development since the 1870s a very difficult task. 1 Like other well-developed cultural-philosophical traditions, such as those of Hinduism and Islam, Chinese traditional heritage continues to interact with intruding foreign ideologies. Unlike the leadership heritage and the well-controlled forces in Japan's modernization since 1868, modernteation in China has gone through several disastrous and irreconcilable stages. 2 At each stage, there was a different ideological orientation and leadership cult. Each successive leadership expected a new China to emerge.