The original focus of the material presented in this chapter was a contrast between the organizational features of the social science capabilities of the Canadian Parks Service and those of the U.S. National Park Service. 1 The discussion presented here was originally an advocacy argument calling management of the U.S National Park Service to action to strengthen the social sciences as management capabilities of that organization. Now, in response to the different requirements of the present publication, the discussion is generalized to apply to the question of appropriate organizational conditions for the all the social sciences in natural resource management agencies in general.