Japanese science education is more successful than its American counterpart in terms of both quantity and quality of science education for all students. More students take advanced science courses; the average level of cognitive achievement attained by Japanese students is higher, and so is the level of scientific literacy of the Japanese population as a whole. Some of this success is due to the overall effectiveness of Japanese precollege education, and part is a result of specific features of its science education. In this chapter, I will examine general educational practices, describe the science curriculum at both the elementary and secondary levels, and then conclude by evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese educational system.