The United States faces the prospect of being able to provide few new academic positions (that is, a net increase in the number of positions, as contrasted with hiring made possible by turnover within a system of constant size) over the coming decade. The causes are rapid expansion of the younger faculty group to accomodate increased enrollment in the 1960's, the leveling off of support for academic science, and a coming decline in the number of persons reaching college age. This prospect has triggered an intensive examination in the United States of past trends and future outlook for new academic positions, based on the premise that the vigor of basic science will decline if there is not a sustained flow of young persons into academic science. This has led to a careful review of the need for, and the nature and scope of, remedial actions.