Persistent housing shortages in the Lagos metropolitan area in Nigeria have necessitated a radical departure from the time-worn strategy of total slum clearance and resettlement of displaced persons. After more than half a century of resettlement schemes that made no appreciable impact on housing and otter needs of the urban poor, planners new seek to upgrade slums by infusion of municipal services such as treated water and electricity supply. Olaleye-Iponri, a vast slum in the Lagos metropolitan area, is the first testing ground for this new approach, which is further distinguished by its emphasis on neighborhood participation and self-help.