A new implementation strategy in international development is emerging from field experience in development projects, encouraged by advances in social science concepts and methodology. Traditionally, development strategies have been based on economic criteria, centralized plans, and center-to-field (top-down) action orientations. The new trend is to incorporate human-oriented concerns, transactive planning and field -with-center collaborative action into development strategies. Various labels have been used for the new concept, but for present purposes the phrase people-centered 1 may best serve. Innovations in social science research methods, in combination with a theory of social action, Influence the basic value orientation and the methodological approach. The underlying concept has been called social learning.