The campaign began with John Williams' statement that the federal deficit had to be reduced even if it meant spending less for social programs. The messages of the campaign—about positions on issues and the groups supporting the candidate—shared much with other campaigns. Candidates frame their messages to appeal to voters (see Monreale, Chapter 2; Lee, Chapter 3; Gronbeck, Chapter 4). They employ elaborate strategies to insure that the mass media carry the message the candidate wants (see Covington et al., Chapter 5 and Woodard, Chapter 6), sometimes successfully and other times unsuccessfully, because media people have their own agenda in presenting candidates to their audiences (see Rucinski, Chapter 8). An election campaign is this interaction of message, media, and voters.