In late 1984, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization established the Office of Innovative Science and Technology (IST), charged with involving universities and small businesses in basic research on a wide range of exotic technologies relevant to the SDI. Although IST has been successful in attracting a number of academic researchers to work on SDI-related projects—by mid-1986 it was sponsoring research projects at seventy-three academic institutions—its efforts have generated considerable controversy within the academic community. 1