The underlying causes, and the short and long term consequences of the violent uprising in Kashmir that began in mid-1989, constitute the theme of the various contributions to this edited volume. Since independence in 1947, India and Pakistan fought two major wars to maintain or seize control over this state: in 1947-48, and in 1965. During the third Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, fought primarily over the Bangladesh separatist issue, there were some limited but unsuccessful efforts by Pakistan to dislodge Indian control over the Kashmir Valley. This latest Kashmir crisis has put India and Pakistan on the brink of another war. 1 Since past 4wars failed to resolve the Kashmir question, a potential fourth Indo-Pakistani war would appear unlikely to do so either.