Much has been said and written about the effects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in areas such as the replacement of man by robot, or of human labour by automated processes, the disappearance of old professions and the emergence of new ones. Much less, and often only indirectly, the effects associated with the conditions and quality of work in its different dimensions have been explored. This chapter reports the reflections that emerge from the analysis of some manufacturing processes in a highly industrialized area of Northern Italy: Emilia-Romagna. The study was carried out through visits to industrial facilities and through interviews with workers and management. A varied picture emerges. The basic thesis is that, along with high-quality and qualified forms of work, digitization can co-exist not only with lean production models, but also with old Taylorist practices. In the mass production of mechanical, biomedical, agri-food and tile products, the use of work organization models and procedures that require very simple, immediately understandable single operations and in which the training time is almost non-existent are widespread. In this context, the cognitive complexity of the entire organization of work and the understanding of the worker and their control over the processes are strongly reduced. In the relationship between man and machine, the Bravermian criticisms of the Taylorist organization of work can be proposed once again.