Youth engaging in delinquent behavior experience a range of mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms, self-harm) and physical health (e.g., injuries, oral health, illness) problems, as well as health risk behaviors (e.g., substance misuse and abuse, risky sexual behaviors). These youth engaging in delinquent behavior may also be exposed to social problems (e.g., homelessness) that impact negatively on their health. The content of the current chapter is framed by a public health perspective. In this chapter, the mental and physical health problems and health risk behaviors experienced by Australian youth engaging in delinquent behavior in the general population, the youth justice population, and homeless youth (commonly required to engage in delinquent behaviors as a result of their personal circumstances) are described. Finally, the current chapter summarizes approaches and policies to prevent mental and physical health problems, health risk behaviors, and the exposure to social problems of youth engaging in delinquent behavior in Australia.