In years past, it was common for student pilots to invest up to USD 100,000 in training costs and then accept a first job sweeping a hangar floor before gaining sufficient company seniority to pilot small aircraft. After such a large investment in training, young pilots would typically start their careers in small operators working for poverty-level wages – and sometimes on an unpaid volunteer basis. In most of the Western hemisphere, the attitude was that young professionals must pay their dues before earning the privilege of fair pay (with the average age for a newly hired airline First Officer being early-30s). A frequently used expression was that ‘in aviation we eat our own young’. The industry has a long history of exploitative labour practices of its up-and-coming professionals.