In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Emma Goldman (1869–1940) was widely known as “Red Emma” because of her activity on behalf of radical causes. Born in Russia, she moved to the United States when she was seventeen and remained there for most of her life. Her outspoken advocacy of anarchism, socialism, and women’s rights led to prison sentences for, among other things, openly promoting birth control and opposing the draft during World War I. She was deported to Russia in 1919, where she became an outspoken critic of the newly established communist regime. In the following essay, Goldman defends anarchocommunism by clarifying its aims and responding to common criticisms—and, in her view, misconceptions—of anarchism.