Ethnic segregation might be a result of ethnic minorities having special preferences for where to settle. The absolute main focus in the research literature has been on to what extent ethnic minorities prefer to live close to neighbours from their own ethnic group, subsequently if they want to avoid living in neighbourhoods dominated by the native majority or by other groups. In the literature this has often been named propensity to ‘self-segregation’. Two different main explanations have been put forward for why some minorities prefer to settle in ethnic neighbourhoods. One is linked to having positive preferences for qualities found in these neighbourhoods that are attractive for minorities. The weaker version of this is that ethnic neighbourhoods make it possible for minorities to settle close to their tighter network of family and friends. The other explanation has to do with a deselection of other parts of the city where minorities feel isolated, insecure or discriminated against. The two explanations could be called respectively the ethnic enclave motive and the sanctuary motive. Often the two motives are intertwined.