The relations of the Islamic Republic of Iran to Russia and India are defined by the geographic position, history, self-perception of the place and role in the international system, as well as security and economic considerations. Nevertheless, external powers and the global developments provide a continuously shifting influence over them, too.

By the fortieth anniversary of the Islamic revolution the Islamic Republic of Iran has become a regional power not only in its self-perception, but also in the strategic calculations of others – both in its closer and in its wider neighborhood. In spite of the sanctions regime (before the conclusion of the nuclear deal in 2015) that has been built up of a diverse set of sanctions, the Islamic Republic has succeeded in maintaining a relatively wide range of international relations – even if these have been shifting in scope and intensity. Among them, relations to Russia and to India stand out significantly. This chapter aims at analyzing Russia–Iran and the India–Iran relations before and after the US withdrawal from the nuclear deal and the consequent US sanctions.