To transform China into a "powerful, modern, socialist country by the end of this century" will require far-reaching changes in all sectors and policy areas, but industrial modernization is the sine qua non. 1 Dramatic advances in the range, quantity, and quality of industrial products are imperative if China's agriculture, national defense, and science and technology are to attain advanced world levels and if the quality of life is to improve as promised by the post-Mao leadership. As presented by P.R.C. leaders, the current modernization program is supposed to achieve rapid economic and technical progress without significant individual sacrifice. On the contrary, it is supposed to produce tangible benefits in the short run. 2 This promise complicates the task of development and increases the political risk of failure. Current policies entail relatively high social and ideological as well as economic costs. Achievements must be prompt and tangible if skeptics and critics are to remain silent. 3