In the current Four Modernizations program, industry has been the primary focus of attention. In the past, the terms industrialization and modernization were often used synonymously. When Chou En-lai revealed his two-stage modernization scheme in January 1975, the first stage was designed to build an independent and relatively comprehensive industrially oriented economic system before 1980; the second stage was to accomplish the modernization of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology before the end of the century. 1 Apparently, Chou envisaged the establishment of an independent and comprehensive industrial system as a prerequisite for the modernization of other sectors.