The hypothesis of this chapter and the one following is that the United States, for reasons that do not primarily turn upon its concern for or linkage to India as a nation, may find cause rather soon to radically increase the flow of economic assistance to that country. This chapter first sketches the rationale for such a move and speculates about its scale, then considers whether it would be economically useful and examines the political constraints with which such a venture would have to contend. Chapter 11 tries to bring the issues into more concrete focus by laying out, for argument's sake, a particular pattern of aid revival that might be both constructive and politically feasible.