With the enactment of the Export Administration Act (EAA) in September of 1979, we find an opportune time for a retrospective analysis and evaluation of the policy and performance of its predecessor, the Export Administration Act of 1969. Specifically, this article examines the following questions: What were the historical antecedents of the EAA of 1969? What were the assumptions and objectives of the Act? What were the mechanics and procedures intended to implement these objectives? To what extent have the policy goals of the 1969 Act been served over the past decade? Finally, what does the legislation and experience of the 1970s suggest about the problems and prospects of export controls in the 1980s?