The debate on security and defense in the Federal Republic of Germany is characterized by a pattern of hills and valleys of public interest. Recently, this interest has been steadily growing. Unfortunately, public debates on the necessity and the possibilities of keeping the fragile peace in Central Europe are too often fed with illusions. There are “positive” illusions—one needs only to demonstrate one’s good intentions in order to obtain international security. There are also “negative” illusions—in order to guarantee international peace one needs only to overcome this or that enemy of international order, this or that group of people with economic, or political, or simply paranoid interests in further armament and even war.