The Atlantic alliance only recently weathered what many considered to be its greatest challenge: the implementation of the 1979 "two-track" decision to field a new generation of U.S. long-range intermediate nuclear forces (LRINF). This came in the face of Soviet intimidation and domestic opposition in each of the five European countries slated for cruise (and in the case of the Federal Republic of Germany, Pershing II) missiles. When the negotiating track proved unsuccessful, the deployment track proved robust.