The foregoing chapters have demonstrated what has happened to the people of China and their cultures under the rule of the Chinese Communists during the years when Mao Zedong was the unchallenged leader of the PRC, during brief intervals when others held sway, and in the post-Mao period. By the end of 1984, a generation had passed and human rights in China had suffered grievously on an unsurpassed scale and for an unprecedented length of time. Without recapitulating the details, it is possible to single out certain features that seem to characterize what the Chinese Communists have done in their efforts to transform the people in their image. It is also possible to point to the principal circumstances and reasons why human rights in China have suffered in the manner described in this volume.