For some time, the Marxist ideology was in need of a raison d’etre in post-Mao China. That statement may sound incredible, since Marxism had once reigned supreme in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) as an unquestioned “absolute truth.” The shaken confidence was so serious that Peng Zhen, one of the Chinese Communist Party’s “old guards” still around, recently deplored a prevailing notion among Chinese youths that held anyone “conservative” or even “reactionary” who supported the study of Marxism-Leninism. 1