Mineral and energy resources are among the mainstays of prosperity for any country or community. In China, with a population of more than 1 billion, knowledge about the extent and availability of mineral and energy resources must be the cornerstone of development policies. Not only must the demand of a huge domestic market be met, but the exploitation of international markets must be fully explored. The goal of scientists and policymakers must be to enable the Chinese people to live and work in peace and contentment, continuously raising their standard of living.