In the literature about NOD, little attention has been given to the air element, with Bjørn Møller (1989), Lutz Unterseher (1989), Ronald Hatchett (1989) and Jorg Wissdorf (1992) as notable exceptions. Most NOD analysts, however, seem to have shied away from the inherent difficulties of such an endeavour. It is already a formidable task to devise ground forces that are well suited for defensive missions (including the ability to carry out an offensive on the tactical/operational level), but unable to mount a strategic offensive. The difficulties multiply when air forces are considered, because of their innate speed, flexibility, mobility and range.