Atoms for Peace is thirty years old. Twenty-six nations currently operate large-scale commercial reactors for uranium electricity generation, and another five countries seem likely to join this group soon. The planning and preparatory meetings for the 1985 NPT review conference are well under way, the long-awaited U.N. conference on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is now scheduled for 1986 and the Western supplier nations met in July 1984. Governments in three major nuclear supplier states have recently experienced change: there is a new Canadian government with a huge electoral majority; the U.S. administration is beginning a new four-year term of office; and the Australian Labor Party, also with a fresh electoral mandate, has seemingly finally determined, after years of debate, that Australian uranium exports are to be encouraged—at least on a limited basis. It may thus be an opportune time to review international policy options regarding two of the perceived major problems of civil nuclear power in many parts of the world: nuclear waste and potential nuclear weapons proliferation.