The historic Atoms for Peace speech heralded the birth of an era of cooperation between the sovereign nations of the world in the peaceful uses of atomic energy for the benefit of all mankind. The prime minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, welcomed the proposal of President Eisenhower, and expressed his desire that it be given respect and careful attention. After extensive and, to some extent, explosive discussions lasting for about a year, on December 4, 1954, the U.N. General Assembly endorsed the establishment of an international atomic energy agency to coordinate international nuclear cooperation. At the first international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy held in Geneva in 1955, Homi J. Bhabha, the architect of our nuclear energy program, concluded his valedictory address by remarking that after closing the conference, we would all return to work in one way or another connected with peaceful uses of atomic energy, satisfied that we had helped make the conference a success, and determined that our work be used to better the conditions of all men.