The term “Chinese-type socialist road,” or “socialism with Chinese characteristics,” made its first formal appearance in Teng Hsiao-p’ing’s opening address to the Twelfth Chinese Communist Party (CCP) National Congress on September 1, 1982. In the period between the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh CCP Central Committee in December 1978 and this congress, the same concept was generally referred to as “Chinese-type modernization.” By substituting “Chinese-type socialist road,” Teng seems to have attached more importance to the political significance of the Four Modernizations.