The year under survey was another tumultuous one for Turkish domestic politics. In two important respects the developments continued their 1985 trend of disappointing those who had hoped that the 1983 constitutional reforms would change the pattern of political life. The first was the proliferation of political parties. The other was the reemergence of pre-1980 party leaders despite their being banned from formal party membership until 1992. The most important single event was the by-election for 11 vacant assembly seats in September.