This chapter explores HR practices in resource-cursed economies, with a particular focus on the context of Brunei. The literature available on the resource curse implies that organisations in non-oil and -gas sectors across petro-states experience a number of key obstacles to achieving competitiveness and becoming self-sustaining. This chapter investigates the link between particular HR policies and practices and business performance; emphasis is placed on examining and drawing contrasts between oil and gas and non-oil and -gas sectors, whilst further seeking to highlight the comparative lessons aimed at garnering insight into the possible and performance-related results associated with HR interventions in resource-focused national economies.