Our interest in this chapter is to explore two aspects of education in Japan, and the connections between them. The first aspect is the Confucian tradition, which has had a strong influence in Japan as in other parts of East Asia, but has also undergone considerable change over time, in line with broader changes in Japanese society and culture. Contemporary education in Japan reflects the tension between a desire to honour tradition and the need to think critically and imaginatively about future directions. The second aspect is the relatively recent introduction of “Philosophy for Children” (P4C) in several Japanese schools and classrooms which puts the focus on some important questions about the current state of education in Japan. These questions could stimulate further discussion, particularly among young people themselves, about the prospect of reinterpreting Confucianism in ways that meet the changing demands of young people growing up in Japan in the twenty-first century.