The economic and financial crisis has highlighted, among other things, the failure of the monitoring processes of managers’ and directors’ behavior, some of whom, with their decisions, have negatively influenced the trend of corporate profitability and financial markets. In this context, the process of the dissemination and management of knowledge is investigated to identify the causes and effects of this negative movement. Our work addresses two central questions. Is there a way to improve the knowledge of managers to solve the behavioral biases affecting their business decisions? If one exists, how do knowledge management approaches influence it?

The purpose of our work is to introduce the cognitive approach to knowledge management (KM), adopting it from behavioral corporate finance (BCF) to connect different perspectives on the creation and management of knowledge. By analyzing the existing literature on corporations’ biases on the one hand and the processes of dissemination and management of knowledge on the other, the main contribution of this explorative study is to define new research developments that also consider behavioral phenomena as determining elements in the decision-making process of the management and sharing of knowledge. Our results offer some interesting implications for theory, practice and policy.

Concerning the theoretical implications, we connect the cognitive approach to KM from the BCF perspective, and, to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first exploratory study based on these topics. Regarding the practical implications, this research is useful for managers at different levels and for entrepreneurs or top management members who intend to implement a knowledge management process in their organization.

Finally, concerning the policy implications, our work is the first to provide a new theoretical perspective of knowledge management based on a cognitive approach that can be used to project complementary and innovative initiatives and as a tool that improves the managerial behaviors.