The Arab defeat of 1967 and, even before, the failure of the Egyptian-Syrian Union in 1961, had increased a deep sense of loss, fostering a turn to the left in nationalist movements and enhancing Arab militants’ desire to search for alternative models. In this accelerated change in the Arab political landscape, Ho Chi Minh, Mao Ze Dong and Che Guevara had seemingly eclipsed the founding father figures of the socialist revolutions, from Nasser to Lenin.