In Chapter 7 we discussed experimental work in monkeys that has shown that both the frontal and inferior temporal cortex are essential for the new learning of visual tasks. We also stressed the importance of the basal forebrain in encoding. This theme is developed further here, as we consider whether the basal forebrain also has a role in retrieval. We will also review the way frontal cortical areas operate corticocortically to enable the retrieval of memories laid down in posterior cortical areas.