In the ‘decade of transition’, many discussions in the Czech Republic have focused on the problems of the formation of civil society and of its role in society and politics. Not only scholars but also (mainly) politicians and intellectuals, often former dissidents, were active in these discussions, which were published in daily newspapers rather than in scientific journals. The problems of civil society have become the battlefield for different political streams and politicians. Each political group espoused different concepts of civil society and used them for direct and immediate gains in political competition.