This article is a comparative study of American and Soviet programmes of space/cosmos elaboration in terms of ideological and technological competition during the era of the cold war. It is in a sense a rereading of a book written by Nikolai Nosov for Soviet children called Neznaika on the Moon (1965). This book - which was the most popular among Soviet children in the 1960s and 1970s — helps to uncover ideological and technological paradigms of the time when outer space happened to be the scene of the cold war conflict. The subject of space/cosmos has been studied in many contextual respects. However, there are four key notions — such as technology, ideology, time, consciousness — which make it possible to see similarities and differences between American and Soviet scientific approaches to outer space.