The first three contributions share a common theme-examining primary children’s attitudes to group work in science, the nature of their collaborations and the subsequent implications for learning. The first, from the Collaborative Learning and Primary Science (CLAPS) project examines girls’ and boys’ attitudes to group work and group composition. Ros Smith, in her contribution, reports her research into patterns of discourse in collaborative learning situations and considers the significance of gender differences in relation to teachers’ goals for collaborative learning. The contribution from Denmark describes the ELIN project. In this contribution, the authors describe the results of a study of girls’ and boys’ ways of working together.