Concern over the underachievement of inner-city pupils, and in particular youngsters from ethnic minority communities, became apparent in the 1980s after the interim report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups (the ‘Rampton Report’, DES, 1981) which focused on Afro-Caribbean pupils. The investigation was broadened in the final report Education for All (the ‘Swann Report’, DES, 1985). This put firmly on the national agenda the attainment, achievement and aspirations of innercity youngsters, and in particular those from ethnic minorities. The reports had pointed not only to deprivation (for example through unemployment and housing conditions) but also to racism as important factors. Coard (1971) had previously drawn attention to stereotyped teacher expectations that stigmatized ethnic minority pupils as educationally sub-normal. Attitudes, particularly of teachers, play a crucial role both in the problem of ethnic minority underachievement and in possible solutions. Lord Swann’s own views did not always square with the consensus of his committee so his personal summary of the highlights of the Swann Report was hugely controversial, criticized even by committee members (Gill et al., 1992). Solutions to some issues raised followed a cultural pluralism model. Religious education, for example, was recommended to devise a curriculum which is inclusive of the major religions and would inform all pupils of the diversity of religious beliefs, assumptions and attitudes (see Bigger, 1995b). Racism however demands anti-racist solutions: these are hinted at but do not predominate.