In social sciences it is not uncommon that several, often conflicting, theories are applied to one particular subject. When special education is the subject, things are complicated because the term ‘special education’ is a fuzzy and allencompassing term. It can be used to describe the instruction of students with special needs, the use of special methods and materials or the activities of special teachers. Sometimes it refers to special and separate school systems. Therefore, theories of special education can have very different aims. When thinking about special education theories it is necessary to specify the aim under consideration. What do we mean by special education and what is special education ultimately about?