It is an interesting time to be writing a chapter on models for special needs education because there are so many pressures for change being exerted in education in general. While this chapter seeks to explore the shortcomings and benefits of medical and psychological models in the provision of education to students with special educational and developmental needs, in order to place a consideration of these models in perspective, I will provide a setting by outlining two significant influences in special education over the last quarter of a century. The first is the behavioural revolution and the second is inclusive schooling.