The theory of Level I/Level II abilities provided evidence that short-term memory processes, involving relatively little elaboration of incoming stimulation (i.e., Level I abilities), should be considered separately from other broad ability factors. The theory has, however, outlived its usefulness for two reasons. First, it is too limited in its scope to function as a theory of the organization of the whole broad range of human cognitive abilities; we need and have theories of the structure of abilities that are clearly more comprehensive than that proposed by Jensen. Second, a majority of the resultant empirical studies has not been supportive of the theory. In this regard we may note a virtue of Jensen’s formulations, not always present in the psychometrically-based theories-a set of testable predictions.