There are numerous models of occupational stress in the literature (e.g. Caplan 1975; Cooper 1986; Cooper and Marshall 1976; Fletcher 1988; Karasek 1979; Karasek and Theorell 1990; Ostell 1996a; Payne 1979; Warr 1987). In common with the conceptualization of stress discussed in Chapter 1, there is growing support in the literature for a ‘transactional’ model of occupational stress (e.g. Caplan et al. 1975; Fletcher 1988; Ostell 1996a; Rabin et al. 1999). The transactional approach proposes that most situations are not in themselves intrinsically stressful but that people distress themselves via the way in which they perceive and react to situations. This model fits well with the cognitively mediated model of stress outlined in Chapter 1, in that it emphasizes the central mediating role played by cognitive processes and behavioural coping strategies in the development of occupational stress. This is not to imply that the work environment is never to blame, or that the individual is always responsible for their own stress. Clearly there is an interaction between the individual and the work environment.