As Japan leaves the phase of rapid urban growth and enters the phase of maturity, the issues of economic, social, and environmental sustainability and the enhancement of people’s quality of life have become important issues. In many Japanese cities people are now searching for sustainable urban forms and functions that provide a high quality of life. As there is no single solution available for such issues, urban planning as a process of consensus building and decisionmaking among various actors of society in Japanese cities is becoming more important as a way of finding original solutions that contribute to urban sustainability and quality of life.