Philippe Manoury’s opera, titled K . . . aft er Franz Kafk a’s Th e Trial, combines electronic elements with singers and full orchestra. Th is analysis employs an historical-cultural approach to explore the links between Kafk a and Jewish mysticism, examining the technology, serial processes, musical form, and semiotics used in Manoury’s K . . . . Text, image, video, and score examples contribute to the analysis, which integrates both acoustic and electronic elements.2