The Culture Matters Research Project seeks to answer some important questions: What role do values and culture play in economic development? Can some values be considered assets that foster development or liabilities that impede it? How have cultural values influenced the political, economic, and social evolution of societies? How have cultural values changed in recent decades? What policies, institutional innovations, and development projects have caused these changes? What are the implications for countries lagging behind? I will address these questions using Mexico, with some comparative references, as a case study.