The oppositional culture explanation for racial disparities in educational achievement introduced by Ogbu (1978, 1991) suggests that individuals from historically oppressed groups (involuntary minorities) display their antagonism towards the dominant group by resisting educational goals. According to this line of argument, castelike minorities (including nativeborn Blacks, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and American Indians) withdraw from academic pursuits because they believe that racial discrimination and prejudice limit their access to high-paying jobs. Ironically, however, in their unwillingness to play the “credentializing” game, they reproduce existing class relations, and remain mired in subordinate economic positions (Willis, 1977; Solomon, 1992).