France demonstrated beyond doubt its solidarity with the Americans after 11 September 2001. Echoing Benjamin Franklin who once declared that ‘we are citizens of two nations: France and our homeland’, Jean-Marie Colombani, the editor of Le Monde, proclaimed ‘we are all Americans’.1 Former French President Jacques Chirac and other European leaders rallied around this heroic watchword. Memorial services were organized in Paris and spontaneous demonstrations of sympathy took place in many cities. Thousands of French citizens held candle vigils, rallies and prayer services. The Western alliance suddenly became more than a concept, invoking an emotional sense of community, a widespread feeling of common destiny.