The extent and nature of anti-Americanism in international public opinion provides one helpful set of clues to the likely international security stances of governments and movements. When faced with choices about how to respond to US government policy preferences, domestic public opinion provides its political elites with incentives and disincentives to co-operate with, stand aside from through evasion and delay, try to modify, or even resist what Washington seems to want. The opinions of domestic publics also can be used to bargain for side-payments as the price for co-operation and to elicit compliance waivers from Washington. Further, if US offi cials do not take into account negative or sceptical foreign public opinion about US security policies, they may overestimate the likelihood of foreign support and underestimate the chances that foreign governments will stand aside, make modifi cation attempts or resist.