The worldwide market for political consultancy and campaign communication is a multibillion-dollar market. In the United States nearly $2 billion flowed through consultants in 20032004 federal elections. About 600 professional consultants were paid more than a combined $1.85 billion according to a review conducted by the Center of Public Integrity. Abundant spending on campaign communication and strategic advice is not confined to the United States. Total expenditures for the recent Brazilian and Mexican presidential campaigns exceeded $600 million. About 60% of that amount has been spent on campaign communication and the production of vivid television spots crafted by top media consultants and advertising agencies. In Russia the gray market in elections is at least $1 billion a year. In the Asia-Pacific region more than $1 billion is spent on campaign communication every election cycle. Even in Western Europe where expensive paid political television advertising campaigns are rare exceptions and campaigns are planned and directed by professional party managers, there are business opportunities for external political consultants. In the United Kingdom Labour and the Tories spent more than $2 million on outside consultants in 2005. About the same amount has been spent in Italy in 2006 by Forza Italia and Ulivo on strategic advice by American overseas consultants. In 2006 even in a small country such as Austria the Social Democrats spent considerable money on advice and services provided by a team of top US consultants.