This chapter reports on discussions at the international workshop “Closing the Gap between Neurophysiology and Behaviour: A Computational Modelling Approach” held in Birmingham, UK, May-June 2007. The aim of this chapter is not to set out a coherent scientific framework for computational modelling in behavioural neuroscience. As will become clearer in the course of the chapter, this would be an impossible task since the field employs a broad range of approaches and no agreed procedure exists. Instead, the report is an attempt to summarize the opinions of the workshop’s participants as truthfully as possible, and, in so doing, to highlight the different approaches and methods utilized in the field. Thus, this chapter provides a kind of summary of the methodologies represented in this volume. In summarizing these approaches, though, the intention is to take at least a small step on the path of developing a coherent framework for computational modelling of human behaviour.